Category Archives: Diagnosis

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the diagnostic criteria for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)?

The Bottom Line: European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) criteria for diagnosis of HSP include both: purpura or petechiae not related to thrombocytopenia with lower limb predominance (or demonstration of immunoglobulin A [IgA] deposits … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the causes of leukocytoclastic vasculitis?

The Bottom Line: About half of cases are idiopathic. The remainder are most often either drug induced or post infectious. Viral upper respiratory infection or streptococcal pharyngitis frequently precede the onset of IgA vasculitis by 1 to 2 weeks. 40% … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Dressler Conference: What are the presentations of nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

The Bottom Line: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) refers to a group of highly heterogeneous clinical conditions lasting more than 30 minutes, in which continuous or recurrent electrographic seizure activity results in nonconvulsive clinical features. NCSE in adults represents a constellation … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the causes of nephrotic syndrome?

The Bottom Line: Many underlying systemic conditions can cause nephrotic syndrome (NS), although type 2 diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus are most common. NS may not present as a primary diagnosis, but instead as one of multiple disease manifestations, … Continue reading

Posted in Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What is the sensitivity of the 4th generation test for acute HIV infection?

The Bottom Line:  A study involving 86,836 participants found the Abbott Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay to have a 79.8% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity with a positive predictive value of 59% (Peters et al, 2016). Reference: Peters PJ, Westheimer E, … Continue reading

Posted in Diagnosis, EUH, Miscellaneous

EUH Krakow Conference: What causes glomerulonephritis?

The Bottom Line: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is diagnosed on the basis of a glomerular-injury pattern that is common to a heterogeneous group of diseases. Two major pathophysiological factors — the deposition of immunoglobulin and the deposition of complement in the … Continue reading

Posted in Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Hunt Conference: What is plastic bronchitis?

The Bottom Line: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by production of cohesive and branching casts filling the airways. The diagnosis of PB is confirmed by a history of expectoration of branching airways casts, or by removing … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH, Teaching pearls