Category Archives: Background question

EUH Krakow Conference: What are all of the causes of anion gap acidosis and are there mnemonics by which to remember them?

Bottom Line: Causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis are broken down into the following categories: overproduction of acid due to ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis, underexcretion of acid (such as due to advanced renal failure/chronic kidney disease (uremia)), cell lysis (such … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the diagnostic criteria for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)?

The Bottom Line: European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) criteria for diagnosis of HSP include both: purpura or petechiae not related to thrombocytopenia with lower limb predominance (or demonstration of immunoglobulin A [IgA] deposits … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the causes of leukocytoclastic vasculitis?

The Bottom Line: About half of cases are idiopathic. The remainder are most often either drug induced or post infectious. Viral upper respiratory infection or streptococcal pharyngitis frequently precede the onset of IgA vasculitis by 1 to 2 weeks. 40% … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Dressler Conference: What are the presentations of nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

The Bottom Line: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) refers to a group of highly heterogeneous clinical conditions lasting more than 30 minutes, in which continuous or recurrent electrographic seizure activity results in nonconvulsive clinical features. NCSE in adults represents a constellation … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Hunt Conference: A review of RCT findings on thrombolytics for pulmonary embolsim

The Bottom Line: Thrombolysis may be considered in selected intermediate-risk PE patients who have evidence of RV dysfunction or myocardial damage or in PE who may be clinically worsening or not improving with anticoagulation, and/or based on patient values or … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, EUH, Therapy

EUH Hunt Conference: What is plastic bronchitis?

The Bottom Line: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by production of cohesive and branching casts filling the airways. The diagnosis of PB is confirmed by a history of expectoration of branching airways casts, or by removing … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH, Teaching pearls

EUH Dressler Conference: What is the pathophysiology of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?

The Bottom Line: DIC is a systemic pathophysiologic process and not a single disease entity. The massive tissue factor stimulus results in excess intravascular thrombin, which overcomes the anticoagulant systems and leads to thrombosis. Because of consumption of coagulation factors … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, EUH