Category Archives: Background question

EUH Dressler Conference: What is the epidemiology of legionella pneumonia?

The Bottom Line: Legionella pneumonia accounts for 2-7% of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. In the U.S., legionella infections accounted for 1.3 per 100,000 cases between 2011-2013. Of the 1,426 cases reported in the U.S between 2011-2013: 79% in patients > 50 … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Dressler Conference: What are HIV elite controllers and HIV long-term nonprogressors?

The Bottom Line: Long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) account for 1-5% of HIV-infected individuals characterized by documented infection for more than 7-10 years, a stable CD4+ T cell count over 500/mm3 and low viremia in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. They are able … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH, Intern toolbox, Teaching pearls

EUH Hunt Conference: What trials have been done on early vs. later initiation of ARTs in the hospital for opportunistic infections in the setting of HIV?

The Bottom Line:  Karim et al (2010): An open-label randomized controlled trial in Durban, South Africa to determine optimal timing of ART initiation in relation to TB treatment. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive tuberculosis patients with HIV infection and CD4+ counts … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, EUH, Therapy

EUH Krakow Conference: What are all of the causes of anion gap acidosis and are there mnemonics by which to remember them?

Bottom Line: Causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis are broken down into the following categories: overproduction of acid due to ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis, underexcretion of acid (such as due to advanced renal failure/chronic kidney disease (uremia)), cell lysis (such … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the diagnostic criteria for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)?

The Bottom Line: European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) criteria for diagnosis of HSP include both: purpura or petechiae not related to thrombocytopenia with lower limb predominance (or demonstration of immunoglobulin A [IgA] deposits … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Krakow Conference: What are the causes of leukocytoclastic vasculitis?

The Bottom Line: About half of cases are idiopathic. The remainder are most often either drug induced or post infectious. Viral upper respiratory infection or streptococcal pharyngitis frequently precede the onset of IgA vasculitis by 1 to 2 weeks. 40% … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH

EUH Dressler Conference: What are the presentations of nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

The Bottom Line: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) refers to a group of highly heterogeneous clinical conditions lasting more than 30 minutes, in which continuous or recurrent electrographic seizure activity results in nonconvulsive clinical features. NCSE in adults represents a constellation … Continue reading

Posted in Background question, Diagnosis, EUH