The Bottom Line: Infective endocarditis remains a serious condition. In previous series, the clinical features, etiology, complications, and outcome have been documented in patients with IE, which resulted in most appropriate therapies, although mortality remains high in these patients. Interestingly, few investigators have described ANCA-associated IE. These authors have thus reported ANCA in 18% to 33% of patients with IE.
References: Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis. (n.d.). Medicine., 95(3), Medicine. , 2016, Vol.95(3).
Summary: Infection-associated ANCA may be triggered by many immune dysfunction in response to microbial peptides leading to: upregulation of autoantigen genes, molecular mimicry between pathogen microorganisms and self-antigens, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, interaction of pathogen microorganism components with toll-like receptors. More recently, the association between infective endocarditis (IE) and formation of ANCA has also been reported