The Bottom Line: Impaired cell mediated immunity is the most common risk factor, including HIV, solid-organ transplantation, hematologic malignancies, chemotherapy, radiation, and corticosteroids. Other risk factors include primary immunodeficiencies associated with fungal infections, recent antibiotic use, alcoholism, malnutrition, endocrine diseases, esophageal abnormalities, previous vagotomy, pharmacologic suppression of gastric acid production, and advanced age (DynaMed Plus, 2016).
Reference: DynaMed Plus [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 – . Record No. 115950, Esophageal candidiasis; [updated 2016 Apr 14, cited 2017 February 15]; [about 11 screens].
For additional reading: Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, Clancy CJ, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 62(4):e1-e50.