VA Resident Report: How does B12 deficiency cause pancytopenia?

The Bottom Line: A common etiological factor is nutritional deficiency anemia, especially megaloblastic anemia. It accounted for 40 (19.51%) patients presenting with pancytopenia. Megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is well recognizable cause of pancytopenia. Various study reported the range of pancytopenia in megaloblastic anemia to be varying from 11-47%.

Zeb Jan, A., Zahid, B., Ahmad, S., & Gul, Z. (n.d.). Pancytopenia in children: A 6-year spectrum of patients admitted to Pediatric Department of Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences., 29(5), 1153-1157.

Pancytopenia is a malady in which there is lessening of all the three cellular elements of blood; prevailing when the hemoglobin (Hb) <10g%, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <1.5*109/L, platelet count <100*109/L. The pancytopenia was labeled as severe if patient had two or more of the following: Hb <7 gm%, ANC <0.5*109/L, and platelet count <20*109/L.1 In pancytopenia the marrow is customarily hypocellular as a result of primary production defects, it can be due to diminution of hemopoitic cell production, ineffective haemopoiesis or may be due to peripheral devastation of cells

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