Review of congestive heart failure

The Bottom Line: See Table 1, The Diagnosis of CHF.

Reference: Arroll B, Doughty R, Andersen V.  Investigation and management of congestive heart failure.  BMJ 2010 Jul 14; 341.  

Summary: This review discusses the immediate management of patients who present with the clinical syndrome of heart failure (usually a combination of dyspnoea, fatigue, exercise intolerance, and fluid retention) and the management of chronic congestive heart failure. It is based on evidence from guidelines, randomised controlled trials, and population cohorts followed for many years. The authors also emphasise the distinction between heart failure with low ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction because although plenty of evidence exists on how to treat the first entity very little exists on how to treat the second.

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