The Bottom Line: In this United States series, FUO occurs most often in the late stage of HIV infection, individual cases often have multiple etiologies, and DMAC is the most common diagnosis.
Reference: Wendy S. Armstrong, Joel T. Katz, and Powel H. Kazanjian. Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Fever of Unknown Origin: A Study of 70 Patients in the United States and Review. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Feb;28(2):341-5.
Summary: Although infectious diseases are the most common cause of HIV-associated FUO in each location, the spectrum of infections in the United States differs markedly from that in Europe. An initial evaluation in the United States should include an Isolater blood culture, a sputum evaluation for P. carinii and M. tuberculosis, and other noninvasive tests to search for infections due to cytomegalovirus and H. capsulatum.