Benway BM. Bacterial prostatitis. Urol Clin North Am. 2008;35(1):23-32.
Summary of recent diagnostic studies for chronic prostatitis begins at the bottom of p. 25.
Diagnosis by 4 cultures (2 from voiding bladder, 1 from expressed prostatic secretion, 1 from post-massage bladder void) has been considered the gold standard, but most urologists actually utilize a 2 glass method utilizing pre-massage and post-massage urine specimens. The summary also discusses a recent retrospective study (n=895) (Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(4):326-31) that compares semen specimens to the 4 glass method for diagnosing infections by gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. Table V (p. 329) displays the sensitivity of both expressed prostatic secretion and semen in gram-negative and gram-positive cultures.